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When electron density measurements disagree

Figure: The two panels show two independent electron density measurements made during the two flights of the MAXIDUSTY campaign in the summer of 2016. 'Far' denotes Faraday rotation while 'mNLP' denotes multi Needle Langmuir Probe. The disagreement is clear.

The electron density is arguably one of the most important parameters readily derived from any dataset obtained during campaigns studying different layers of the ionosphere. Radars are cool (citation needed) in that they can very often provide good measurements of the electron density, especially in the E- and F-region of the ionosphere. The height resolution is limited, but radars can stay operative for long periods of time. In the D-region, however, things get freaky (citation needed). Most radars cannot provide good electron density measurements here, and the best option for absolute measurements is in-situ probing.

The figure on top of the article shows two observations of the electron density, done with two diff…

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